Supplement to "Frontier Culture: The Roots and Persistence of “Rugged Individualism” in the United States"

This appendix includes the following material: Appendix A details the procedure for mapping the frontier; Appendix B presents robustness checks for Sections 3 and 4; Appendix C presents additional results on partisanship; Appendix D describes our instrumental variables results; and Appendix E provides robustness checks for Section 5.2. Additional supplemental material can be found in the replication files and on the authors’ websites: Appendix F presents alternative approaches to inference; Appendix G provides further results characterizing historical frontier demographics and institutions; Appendix H presents a case study to illustrate the long-run effects; Appendix I presents an alternative estimate of selective migration; Appendix J presents additional results; and Appendix K describes data sources and construction.

Supplemental Authors: 
Bazzi, Samuel - University of California, San Diego
Fiszbein, Martin - Boston University
Gebresilasse, Mesay - Amherst College
Online Appendix