Journal Of The Econometric Society

An International Society for the Advancement of Economic
Theory in its Relation to Statistics and Mathematics

Edited by: Guido W. Imbens • Print ISSN: 0012-9682 • Online ISSN: 1468-0262

Econometrica: May, 1989, Volume 57, Issue 3

Subjective Probability and Expected Utility without Additivity<571:SPAEUW>2.0.CO;2-X
p. 571-587

David Schmeidler

An act maps states of nature to outcomes; deterministic outcomes as well as random outcomes are included. Two acts f and g are comonotonic, by definition, if it never happens that f(s)>f(t) and g(t)>g(s) for some states of nature s and t. An axiom of comonotonic independence is introduced here. It weakens the von Neumann-Morgenstern axiom of independence as follows: If f>g and if f, g, and h are comonotonic, then @af+(1-@a)h>@ag+(1-@a)h. If a nondegenerate, cOntinuous, and monotonic (state independent) weak order over acts satisfies comonotonic independence, then it induces a unique non-(necessarily-)additive probability and a von Neumann-Morgenstern utility. Furthermore, one can compute the expected utility of an act with respect to the nonadditive probability, using the Choquet integral. This extension of the expected utility theory covers situations, as the Ellsbergparadox, which are inconsistent with additive expected utility. The concept of uncertainty aversion and interpretation of comonotonic independence in the context of social welfare functions are included.

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