Econometrica: Jan, 2005, Volume 73, Issue 1
An IV Model of Quantile Treatment Effects
Victor Chernozhukov, Christian Hansen
The ability of quantile regression models to characterize the heterogeneous impact of variables on different points of an outcome distribution makes them appealing in many economic applications. However, in observational studies, the variables of interest (e.g., education, prices) are often endogenous, making conventional quantile regression inconsistent and hence inappropriate for recovering the causal effects of these variables on the quantiles of economic outcomes. In order to address this problem, we develop a model of quantile treatment effects (QTE) in the presence of endogeneity and obtain conditions for identification of the QTE without functional form assumptions. The principal feature of the model is the imposition of conditions that restrict the evolution of ranks across treatment states. This feature allows us to overcome the endogeneity problem and recover the true QTE through the use of instrumental variables. The proposed model can also be equivalently viewed as a structural simultaneous equation model with nonadditive errors, where QTE can be interpreted as the structural quantile effects (SQE).