# Econometrica

## Journal Of The Econometric Society

### An International Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory in its Relation to Statistics and Mathematics

Edited by: Guido W. Imbens • Print ISSN: 0012-9682 • Online ISSN: 1468-0262

Econometrica: May, 1991, Volume 59, Issue 3

# Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation

Donald W. K. Andrews

This paper is concerned with the estimation of covariance matrices in the presence of heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation of unknown forms. Currently available estimators that are designed for this context depend upon the choice of a lag truncation parameter and a weighting scheme. Results in the literature provide a condition on the growth rate of the lag truncation parameter as $T \rightarrow \infty$ that is sufficient for consistency. No results are available, however, regarding the choice of lag truncation parameter for a fixed sample size, regarding data-dependent automatic lag truncation parameters, or regarding the choice of weighting scheme. In consequence, available estimators are not entirely operational and the relative merits of the estimators are unknown. This paper addresses these problems. The asymptotic truncated mean squared errors of estimators in a given class are determined and compared. Asymptotically optimal kernel/weighting scheme and bandwidth/lag truncation parameters are obtained using an asymptotic truncated mean squared error criterion. Using these results, data-dependent automatic bandwidth/lag truncation parameters are introduced. The finite sample properties of the estimators are analyzed via Monte Carlo simulation.