Econometrica: Jul 1972, Volume 40, Issue 4

A Cost-Inclusive Simultaneous Equation Model of Birth Rates

https://doi.org/0012-9682(197207)40:4<681:ACSEMO>2.0.CO;2-E
p. 681-687

Benjamin Cheng, John M. Campbell, Paul R. Gregory

In this paper, the authors develop a simultaneous equation model of birth rates composed of four estimated equations. This work differs from past research in that it considers the simultaneous relationship between birth rates and income and includes the cost of fertility as an explanatory factor. This cost is measured by the female labor participation rate under the assumption that income foregone due to fertility is a significant opportunity cost.

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